Place Work KnowledgeOpen
The PWK research strand focuses on the processes that drive and sustain London’s creative and cultural economy; examining how innovation, knowledge production and exchange work in practice. The approach will reflect the diversity of London’s creative and cultural economy, including the pivotal role of educational institutions, public and curatorial institutions and extra-institutional clusters of creative activity.
This strand of research will provide a rigorous understanding of the dynamism of London’s creative economy by looking at how it is nurtured, and the challenges that it faces. By focusing on a web of activity that maintains this creative ecosystem, this research strand will provide an evidence base for London’s policy development and delivery for the creative and cultural economy and its skills base.
Andy is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences. He has worked in local radio and as an academic researcher. He has previously held academic appointments at Coventry University (Planning and Local Economic Development), Staffordshire University (Geography), University College London (Bartlett School of Planning), London School of Economics (Geography, and Urban Research Centre) 1998-2009, King’s College London (Department of Culture, Media and Creative Industries) 2009 – 2013.
Professor Rosalind Gill is a British cultural theorist with expertise in media, new technologies, gender, sexuality, work, and inequalities in the cultural and creative industries. She is author or editor of 6 books and numerous scholarly publications and sits on the editorial boards of various leading journals including Theory, Culture and Society, Feminism and Psychology, and Culture, Communication and Critique. She is currently co-editing a book on Gender and Creative Labour, and writing another book about Mediated Intimacy. Her career has included posts at Goldsmiths and King’s College London, and she worked for ten years in the LSE’s interdisciplinary Gender Institute. She joined City University London in October 2013 to take up the position of Professor of Social and Cultural Analysis
Mark’s teaching and research interests are in the sociology of culture, particularly work, employment and cultural policy in the arts and cultural industries. He has published widely on the cultural and creative industries, work and identity, media and popular culture, cultural policy and cities. Recently he has been working on notions of value and exchange, craft labour, and the relationship between internal and external goods in cultural practices – looking variously at jazz musicians, traders in artmoney and digital media workers. He has been working on the histories and futures of cultural work, a theme explored in Theorizing Cultural Work, co-edited with Stephanie Taylor (OU) and Rosalind Gill (City).
He convenes the research strand on The Cultural Industries in the context of the Reframing the Nation Theme 2 of the ESRC Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change (CRESC) and is also a member of the OpenSpace Research Centre.
Wendy is a recognised fashion designer, academic and researcher; she has high-level strategic experience both within the international designer sector and more recently in higher education. A fashion design graduate, with a successful 20-year career as a fashion designer, Wendy achieved an MBA in 1996 and was awarded the Fellowship of the Chartered Society of Designers in 1996.
Wendy has been Director of the Centre for Fashion Enterprise since April 2007.
Wendy is an authority on successfully marrying creativity and commerciality: she has contributed to the Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, presented papers to international audiences on creativity vs. risk, investment and nurturing nascent design talent and has led AHRC funded workshops on Creativity in the Creative Industries.
Dr. Tarek E. Virani:
Tarek is the post-doctoral research assistant on the PWK research project. He obtained a PhD in Human Geography/Cultural and Creative Industries from the London School of Economics / King’s College London. His research includes: examining the role of knowledge within artistic communities, examining formal versus informal learning in artistic communities of practice, musical practice, creative industries research and work in the cultural economy. He is also a musician, music producer and DJ.
About the ResearchOpen
The PWK strand centres on the processes that drive and sustain London’s creative economy, examining how innovation, knowledge production and knowledge exchange work in practice. Here, we are talking about knowledge as ways of doing, or as market information, or sector information. Based on the idea that even when a ‘product’ exists, its journey into the public domain requires a huge amount of ‘knowledge’; furthermore, the development and refinement of a ‘product’, or the very idea of a product, requires access to knowledge. Our core questions are:
- What knowledge is critical for these activities?
- How is it obtained and circulated?
- Is this knowledge generic or proprietary?
- Is it formal or informal?
- Is it gained or exchanged or both?
Knowledge can be gained by past education, or research, or by interaction (or/and past experience). So, our assumption is that any cultural product begins its life, and is sustained by an unacknowledged ecosystem. We are trying to map, make visible, and plot gaps in this system.
Again, the reason we’re interested in the system is that unlike some areas of the economy, most cultural production happens outside of large institutions (that might otherwise foster, contain and promote the above). It is ‘worse’ in the sense that many key functions are performed by micro enterprises, project-based firms and freelancers (with little sustainability). It is fragile.
The approach we are taking will reflect the diversity of London’s creative economy, including the pivotal role of educational institutions, public and curatorial institutions such as museums and libraries and extra-institutional clusters of creative activity. Our approach will provide a rigorous understanding of the dynamism of London’s creative economy – how is it nurtured, what challenges does it face? We will look at individuals working and the relation of individuals to organisations such as firms or project-based networks, as well as the role played by policy and public initiatives. This research will provide an evidence base for London’s policy development and delivery for the Creative Economy and its skills base, as well as insights into the creative economy’s governance that will inform companies, individuals, civil society and the state policy-making community.
Our primary case studies are below. However we are also developing other case studies that will provide us with a holistic array of creative economic activity; importantly these case studies will have inevitable cross over with the other research strands that make up Creativeworks London:
Case Study 1: A Fashion Hub
Case Study 2. A Higher Education Institution
Case Study 3. A Tech Hub
Case Study 4. A Cultural Hub
Case Study 5. An Innovation Hub
Related Research OutputsOpen
The following is a list of relevant publications/resources written by members of the PWK Strand core team. These resources are not commissioned nor produced through the Creativeworks London project. For specifically PWK Strand working papers, articles and reports go here.
Gill,R. (in press) On not saying the ‘S’ word: Postfeminism, entrepreneurial subjectivity and the repudiation of sexism among cultural workers. Social Politics
Gill,R. (2014). Academics, Cultural Workers and Critical Labour Studies. Journal of Cultural Economy. vol.7 issue 1 pp.12-30.
Banks, M; Gill, R; Taylor, S. (2014). Theorizing Cultural Work: Labour Continuity and Change in the Cultural and Creative Industries. Routledge.
Harvey, L.; Ringrose, J.; Gill, R. (2013) Swagger, Ratings and Masculinity: Theorising the circulation of social and cultural value in teenage boys digital peer networks, Sociological Research Online 18. 4
Pratt, A. C. (2013). Local Capacity-building and the Creative Economy in the Global South. UNESCO. Paris
Pratt, A. C. (2013). “…the point is to change it”: Critical realism and human geography. Dialogues in Human Geography 3(1): 26-29.
Indergaard, M.; Pratt, A.; Hutton, T. A. (2013). Creative cities after the fall of finance. Download cities.editorial .pdf, Cities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2012.09.007 Cities 33 (0): 1-4.
Pratt, A. C.; Hutton, T. (2013). Reconceptualising the relationship between the creative economy and the recession: learning from the financial crisis Download: Cities. Final.pdf, Cities. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2012.05.008 Cities 33(0): 86-95
Pratt, A. C. (2013). ‘Creative Industries and Development: culture in development, or the cultures of development?’ in C. Jones, M. Lorenzen & J. Sapsed (eds), Handbook of creative industries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pratt, A. C. (2013). ‘Culture as engine’ in W. Wang (ed), Culture: City. Berlin: Akademie der kunste.
Banks, M. (2012). Creative Cities, Counter-Finance and the Aesthetics of Exchange: Copenhagen’s Artmoney Project, Cities, (special issue Creative Cities After The Fall of Finance, Pratt, A and Indergaard, M. eds.).
Banks, M. (2012). MacIntyre, Bourdieu and the Practice of Jazz, Popular Music, 31, 1, 69-86.
Pratt, A. C. (2012). Factory, Studio, Loft: there goes the neighbourhood? Pp. 25-31 in City as loft: Adaptive reuse as a resource for sustainable development, edited by M. Baum and K. Christiaanse. Zurich: gta Verlag.Download: Pratt ed final.pdf
Pratt, A. C. (2012). The cultural and creative industries: organisational and spatial challenges to their governance, Die Erde 143 (4): 317-334.
Pratt, A. C. (2012). A world turned upside down: the creative economy, cities and the new austerity Download : A world turned upside down.pdf in pp. 13-19 , Smart, Creative, Sustainable, Inclusive: Territorial Development Strategies in the Age of Austerity London: Regional Studies Association.
Pratt, A.C, Borrione, P., Lavanga, M. & D’Ovidio, M. (2012). International Change and technological evolution in the Fashion Industry. pp 359-376 in: Agnoletti, M., Carandini, A. & Santagata, W. (eds.)Essays and Research: International Biennial of Culture and Environmental Heritage. Firenze: Badecchi and Vivaldi. Download: International Change and technological evolution in the Fashion Industry.pdf
Pratt, A. C. (2012). ABC of the cultural industries. from http://www.odai.org/analisis_industrias.php.
Events and ActivitiesOpen
Important Upcoming Events:
Creative Hubs in Question: A Symposium. January 28th, 2016. London South Bank University.
Creativeworks London Festival April 2016
June 17th, 2015: GLA Pecha Kucha Event. Spaces of Work. Tarek Virani
April 20th – 25th, 2015: AAG Conference Chicago. Andy Pratt and Tarek Virani.
January 22nd 2015: Knowledge Transfer Network event.
October 30th and 31st, 2014: Lancaster Hubs Conference. All Creativeworks London team.
September 11th, 2014: Creative Voucher Second Roundtable: Round 3, Localities. Tarek Virani and Sally Taylor.
August 27th-28th, 2014: Royal Geographic Society Conference at the RGS with IBG. Tarek Virani presenting.
June 24th, 2014: Beyond the campus conference. King’s College London. Tarek Virani presenting PWK research on collaboration between HEIs and SMEs in the creative sector.
28th May, 2014: Joining the dots. Ideas pool. Guest speakers: Wendy Malem (CFE); Dr. Oli Mould (Royal Holloway). Film links below.
12th March, 2014: The AHRC Creative Economy Showcase 2014. Breakout session: Innovation Hubs, Prof. Andy Pratt.
3rd March, 2014: Andy Pratt discusses the video game industry.
21st February, 2014: Cultural Work/Cultural Value. Mark Banks speaking: What is Work Worth?
4th February, 2014: Research Lab. Examining Mare Street, how creative hubs are managing their creative ecosystems. The Trampery London Fields.
26th November, 2013: CWL Partner’s Forum. Milton Court, Guildhall School of Music and Drama. Professor Andy Pratt Presenting PWK strand’s research on hubs.
21st – 22nd June, 2013: ICI Workshop. The Workshop, organised by Rosalind Gill, together with Christina Scharff and Tim Jordan from King’s College London, focused on Cultural Work, Subjectivity and Technology.
6th June, 2013. Localities Creative Voucher theme Roundtable. Hosted by The Culture Capital Exchange.
31st May-June 1st, 2013. Association for Urban Creativity Conference. King’s College London. Andy Pratt as co-organizer.
28th March, 2013: Kinetica Art Fair. Suzie Leighton from The Culture Capital Exchange. Tarek Virani presentation on knowledge and work.
Malem, Wendy; Miller, Jan; König, Anna. (2009). High-end fashion manufacturing in the UK – product, process and vision: Recommendations for a Designer and Fashion Manufacturer Alliance and a Designer Innovation and Sampling Centre. Project Report. London College of Fashion, London, UK.
Malem, Wendy; Miller, Jan; König, Anna. (2009). High-end fashion manufacturing in the UK – product, process and vision. Recommendations for education, training and accreditation. Project Report. London College of Fashion, London, UK.
Karra, Neri; Malem, Wendy; Miller, Jan. (2008). High-end fashion manufacturing in the UK – product, process and vision: Recommendations for a Designer and Fashion Manufacturer Alliance and a Designer Innovation and Sampling Centre. Project Report. London College of Fashion, London, UK.
Acord, S.K; DeNora,T. (2008). Culture and the Arts: From Art Worlds to Arts-in-Action, ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 619, no. 1, 2008, 223-237.
Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University press.
Schatzki, T.; Knorr-Cetina, K.; Von Savigny, E. (eds.) (2001). The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. Routledge: London.
Sennett, R.; Calhoun, C. (2007) (eds). Practicing culture. Pages, 82 – 104. Routledge. London, New York.
Communities of Practice:
Amin, A.; Roberts, J. (2008) Knowing in action: beyond communities of practice, Research Policy, 37: 353-369.
Duguid, P. (2004). The Art of Knowing: Social and Tacit dimensions of knowledge and the limits of the community of practice. University of California, Berkeley.
Hughes, J.; Jewson, N.; Unwin, L. (eds) (2008). Communities of Practice: Critical Perspectives, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lave, J.; Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press.
Lorenz, E.; Barlatier, P.J. (2007). Report on Methods for Studying Communities of Practice. EU Network of Excellence Dynamics of Institutions and Markets in Europe (DIME).
Wenger E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambrige University Press.
Collins, H. (1993).The Structure of Knowledge, Social Research, 60, Spring, 95-116.
Polanyi, M. (1962). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy, New York: Harper Torchbooks.
Polanyi, M. (1966). The Tacit Dimension. University of Chicago Press.
Popper, K. (1972). Objective Knowledge. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
Swidler, A., Arditi, J. (1994). The New Sociology of Knowledge. Annual Review of Sociology. 20: 305-329.
Bathelt, H., Malmberg, A., Maskell, P. (2004). Clusters and knowledge: local buzz, global pipelines and the process of knowledge creation, Progress in Human Geography, 28:1, 31-56.
Howells, J. (2000). Knowledge, innovation and location. In: J.R. Bryson, P.W. Daniels, N. Henry, and J. Pollard, eds. Knowledge, space, economy. London: Routledge.
Powell, W. W., & Snellman, K. (2004). The knowledge economy. Annual review of sociology, 199-220.
Spender, J. C. (1996). Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, 17 (special issue): 45-62.
Dr. Tarek Virani